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美國小兒科醫學會建議:國高中第一堂課應在8:30之後

美國兒科學會8月25日發表一份新政策聲明,建議美國高、國中把每天第一節課的時間延到早上8:30或更晚,且按青春期孩子的自然睡眠節奏,安排學校的全天活動。至於那種自然節奏是什麼?科學家說,青少年每天清醒到睡眠的時間會比兒童時期整整晚2小時。

兒科學會說,青少年缺乏睡眠顯而易見的後果是成績差,或因注意力不集中而發生車禍,還可能因此吃較多碳水化合物及油脂而變胖,或罹患憂鬱症。

有學者說,長期睡眠不足是美國兒童及青少年最常見的公衛問題之一,但其實這個問題很容易透過學校的協助而解決,關鍵之一就是把每天早上第一堂的時間延後。

目前全美僅約15%的高中,把第一堂課安排在8:30或更晚;另有40%的高中,8:00不到就上第一堂課。全美約一半的初中把第一堂課時間定在8:00之前,超過兩成甚至在7:45或更早。

美國全國睡眠基金會所做的一項民調發現,在六到八年級、九到十二年級的兩組學生中,各有59%、87%的人長期睡眠不足,即平常上學日每晚睡眠時間未達該會建議的8.5到9.5小時。

相對地,美國臨床睡眠醫學期刊曾有研究指出,肯塔基州萊辛頓市的一個社區高中,把每天早上到校時間延後一小時,青少年駕車出車禍的平均次數就減少了16.5%。另一個針對維吉尼亞州兩所高中所做的兩年研究顯示,把到校時間延後,學生發生意外事故的次數就大幅減少。

兒科學會說,平日睡眠不足,可藉午睡、假日補眠、喝咖啡和茶之類的提神飲料,暫時解決睏意,但那無法達到精神最飽滿的程度,也無法取代規律而充足的睡眠。

美國前教育部助理副部長珍妮佛.戴維斯認為,她希望青少年睡眠不足的研究,能引起更多人關切和討論,她說:「這是學校必須把學生的需求列為核心考量之處。」她還說,家長和孩子各有需求,公車和午餐也各有不同的時刻表,但「教育人員必須專注於協助孩子成功」,而「確保青少年擁有足夠的睡眠」,就是教育者的職責之一。

兒科學會特別說,他們建議的每天第一堂課訂在八點半或更晚,是並未考慮到學生的平均通勤時間,這表示若再加上通勤等因素,還可能更晚。總之,就如該會發布這項政策時的主要訴求:讓他們睡吧!

青少年睡眠的家長須知

1.建議:美國兒科學會認為青少年每晚須睡8.5-9.5小時。
2.避免:青少年房間中盡可能別放電腦、平板電腦、電視、電話、手機及各種電玩。
3.鼓勵:可睡前閱讀,但避免在睡前安排可能耽誤就寢時間的音樂課、體育活動和聚會。
4.協助:設定固定的就寢時間,且限制青少年在床上使用電子產品及社群媒體。

 

 

詳情請參閱後文

 

Let Them Sleep: AAP Recommends Delaying Start Times of Middle and High Schools to Combat Teen Sleep Deprivation

For Release:  August 25, 2014

Studies show that adolescents who don’t get enough sleep often suffer physical and mental health problems, an increased risk of automobile accidents and a decline in academic performance. But getting enough sleep each night can be hard for teens whose natural sleep cycles make it difficult for them to fall asleep before 11 p.m. – and who face a first-period class at 7:30 a.m. or earlier the next day.

In a new policy statement published online Aug. 25, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends middle and high schools delay the start of class to 8:30 a.m. or later. Doing so will align school schedules to the biological sleep rhythms of adolescents, whose sleep-wake cycles begin to shift up to two hours later at the start of puberty.

“Chronic sleep loss in children and adolescents is one of the most common – and easily fixable – public health issues in the U.S. today,” said pediatrician Judith Owens, MD, FAAP, lead author of the policy statement, “School Start Times for Adolescents,” published in the September 2014 issue of Pediatrics.

“The research is clear that adolescents who get enough sleep have a reduced risk of being overweight or suffering depression, are less likely to be involved in automobile accidents, and have better grades, higher standardized test scores and an overall better quality of life,” Dr. Owens said. “Studies have shown that delaying early school start times is one key factor that can help adolescents get the sleep they need to grow and learn.”

Many studies have documented that the average adolescent in the U.S. is chronically sleep-deprived and pathologically sleepy. A National Sleep Foundation poll found 59 percent of 6th through 8th graders and 87 percent of high school students in the U.S. were getting less than the recommended 8.5 to 9.5 hours of sleep on school nights.

The policy statement is accompanied by a technical report, “Insufficient Sleep in Adolescents and Young Adults: An Update on Causes and Consequences,” also published online Aug. 25. The technical report updates a prior report on excessive sleepiness among adolescents that was published in 2005.

The reasons for teens’ lack of sleep are complex, and include homework, extracurricular activities, after-school jobs and use of technology that can keep them up late on week nights. The AAP recommends pediatricians counsel teens and parents about healthy sleep habits, including enforcing a media curfew. The AAP also advises health care professionals to educate parents, educators, athletic coaches and other stakeholders about the biological and environmental factors that contribute to insufficient sleep.

But the evidence strongly suggests that a too-early start to the school day is a critical contributor to chronic sleep deprivation among American adolescents. An estimated 40 percent of high schools in the U.S. currently have a start time before 8 a.m.; only 15 percent start at 8:30 a.m. or later. The median middle school start time is 8 a.m., and more than 20 percent of middle schools start at 7:45 a.m. or earlier.

Napping, extending sleep on weekends, and caffeine consumption can temporarily counteract sleepiness, but they do not restore optimal alertness and are not a substitute for regular, sufficient sleep, according to the AAP.

The AAP urges middle and high schools to aim for start times that allow students to receive 8.5 to 9.5 hours of sleep a night. In most cases, this will mean a school start time of 8:30 a.m. or later, though schools should also consider average commuting times and other local factors.

“The AAP is making a definitive and powerful statement about the importance of sleep to the health, safety, performance and well-being of our nation's youth,” Dr. Owens said. “By advocating for later school start times for middle and high school students, the AAP is both promoting the compelling scientific evidence that supports school start time delay as an important public health measure, and providing support and encouragement to those school districts around the country contemplating that change.”

 

See more at: http://www.aap.org/en-us/about-the-aap/aap-press-room/Pages/Let-Them-Sleep-AAP-Recommends-Delaying-Start-Times-of-Middle-and-High-Schools-to-Combat-Teen-Sleep-Deprivation.aspx#sthash.bJqx0gvL.dpuf

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國賓影城在新竹世博台灣館文創區設點,8月1日開幕,邀新竹居民「大家晚上不要看政論節目,來欣賞好電影」。

開幕的國賓影城,專映藝術電影與獨立片、國際得獎紀錄片及親子電影,與好萊塢電影做區隔。

這座影城是新竹區第一座全方位的文創電影院,共4個廳,每廳有54個座位,配備頂級杜比7.1數位環繞音響,還有人體工學座椅,相當舒服。

每周放映6到8部電影,1個月播放15至20部;開幕片有「逐夢上學路」、「一千次晚安」、「人生多美好」與「哆啦A夢:新大雄的大魔境」。昨晚國賓影城辦公益場,邀請新竹公益團體及學生,觀賞「逐夢上學路」。

 

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